Illegal Immigration (Infiltration). Many countries bordering the sea around the world experience entrance of inflators, either job seekers, smugglers or others, due to political stability and economic prosperity in these countries. Infiltration by sea is considered a common act around the world. Particular groups are specialized in transferring illegal immigrants to the sea borders of these countries, which will be a target for infiltration and sea trafficking. There is no doubt that infiltration has negative effects to all societies either to security, economy, customs or demographic structure, as a result of infiltrators emerging with society categories.
Organized Crime, Illegal Trade And Smuggling Activities. The rates of the organized crime which includes drugs, weapons and human trafficking has been raised worldwide which threatens economic and social life of the people. Drug trafficking operations became the most spreading activities by the sea which requires provision of capabilities to deal with.
Piracy. Piracy is a real hazard for many of costal countries as many piracy incidents in different places around the world have been recorded recently. Such activity became a real thread to the maritime security and navigation routes. As a result, shipment, insurance, import/export costs have noticeably increased and may have negative economical consequences towards the coastal ports. due to lack of effective political and security stability in some states, the coast of these countries will remain a safe shelter for the ships being hijacked by pirates, therefore, piracy operations, which became as a source of funding for the armed groups, will continue and might either increase or decrease in future according to the response of the world community against it.
Maritime Terrorism. In general, there is no specific definition for the terrorism, due to its different motives and types amongst the world. The motives could be political, national, sectarian, and religious, escaping from the law or revenge. Terrorism has different forms such as; sabotage, ports and vital establishment's explosion or transport lines obstruction, especially, at the straits by planting maritime mines, pollution or hijacking. To prevent occurrence of such risks, proper procedures and precautions are required, on the other hand, the sea boundaries are considered more complicated and challenging than land boundaries due to the possibility of entrance/exit from and to regional waters, as the International Law states that these seas should be opened for freedom of maritime navigation. Therefore, the security of maritime coastal establishments and ports, monitoring maritime boundaries, observing any maritime movements and activities adjacent to vital locations are considered most important to achieve the maritime security and to maintain the security of the state's properities and gains.
Illegal Fishing. Illegal Fishing refers to prohibited fishing activities or using unauthorized fishing equipments and methods according to the Fishing Law and its executive regulation, where any of these practices are contrary to the provisions of the law, and thus, these practices fall under the term; "illegal Fishing" as provided in the provisions of the law.
Over Fishing. Over fishing refers to fishing activities practices in ways that lead to depletion of fisheries especially for some types of fish of high economic value which are being overfished the matter which leads to affect the stock of these species such as; lobsters, abalone, shrimps and king fish ……etc.
Maritime Environment. Pollution by oil leakage, either by collision or grounding of oil tanks and flushing of storage tanks at sea are the most significant threats to the marine environment which leads to pollution of the territorial seas including coasts, vital establishment and marine life in general. Moreover, most of world's countries become dependent on desalination plant system for drinking water, therefore, sea water must be kept clean in order to avoid health hazards to population.
Military Crises and Conflicts. It is of important issue to observe the political change in order to maintain the sovereignty of territorial seas and monitoring the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of these countries.
Climate Change. The climate change may lead to some natural disasters, accompanied by server's damage on the marine environment. Moreover, sea temperature changes reflect negatively on the location of sea creatures, consequently, fish stocks is subject to weather and climate changes, as a result, some types of coral reefs will be affected, as well as, the reduction of whales and dolphins numbers. Also acoustic pollution affects on these creatures.
International Navigation Routs Obstruction. The seas are generally considered as the main route to transfer goods and provisions to different countries around the world. The economy of these countries depends on sea routes as means to transfer imports/ exports. Marine transportation is closely relied on the freedom of navigation and the security of navigational routes from and to the coastal ports, therefore, the freedom of navigation and the maritime transportation routes within the territorial seas and (EZZ) are considered main pillars of security, stability and prosperity of the national economy.